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Al-Husayn’s Revolution-Its Social Circumstances and Its Humane Effects By: Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi Shamsud-Din The right revolution is the final definite protest against the existing status quo. For after the failure of all the other means for developing the accomplished position or conditions, the revolution will become inevitably necessary. ln this case those men of revolution are always the most righteous part of the Ummah, the leading vanguard, and the existing elite who could not be captivated by the existing status quo. Truly, they have remained at a higher position than it, even though they are aware of it, watching it carefully and consciously, and may sometimes interact with it and may painfully suffer from it. The revolution may become inevitable determinate destiny for this elite when all the other means of reformation fail. Otherwise, if this elite does not revolt or carries out a revolution, it loses the justification for its existence, and in this case, it cannot be truly called elite. lt is considered the elite when it has a historical role, and it really plays this role and carries out its required tasks. The revolution has to show or demonstrate new norms and morality, when it happens in a society which does not have a religious and human heritage which guarantees for its individuals-if followed- a humane perfect life. Or it attempts to revive the principles, and values which are abandoned or distorted by the society, if the society has possessed such a kind of heritage, as in the case of the Islamic society, where the policy of the Umayyads was to misuse and treat the Islamic precepts harshly which made the Islamic community forsake the Islamic values, and follow the jahili manners in life. In fact, availability of this objective in the sound and right revolution is considered one of the essential elements of its existence, because the human relations in the bad status quo are mean and corrupt, and the attitude of the human being towards the life is weak, disappointed and attributed with the decline and deterioration. Therefore the actual situation has reached the most terrible state,so that a revolution has become the only remedy. Hence, the call for a good type of morality which is more sublime than what the society practise is dire necessity, because it is necessary for the human being to change his opinion of himself and of the others, as well as of the life, so as to reform the society. Certainly, Al.Husayn (A.S.) and the members of his house, and his loyal companions in their revolution against the Umayyad rule-have presented the sublime morality and manners with all their perfection and purity. But they have not presented to the Islamic society this type of ethics and morality with their tongues, but they have written it with their blood and life. ----------------------------------- Al-Husayn Ibn ‘Ali(A.S.) Is Really Master of the Martyrs By: Dr. ‘Abbas Mahmood Al-‘Aqqad There are two opposite tempers in the natures of people. One temper acts and works for chivalrousness (marked by generosity, honour, courtesy, good morality, bounteousness, kindness, manliness and courage), and another temper acts and works for greed and acquisition of selfish interests and gains beyond reason. in fact, the two tempers do not wholly separate from each other. Chivalrousness and generosity may associate with the acquisition of advantage and gains, and the acquisition of gains and advantage may associate with the chivalry and generosity, but - when they conflict with each other - especially in the big works it would not be hard for you to separate the two tempers and to isolate the two camps. This one will stay for chivalrousness and generosity which would invalidate the self-interest and conceal it. The other temper remains for the acquisition of gains which would ward off chivalry or generosity and conceal it, or they seem so. ln fact, those of the big demands in history depend on this temper as well as on the other. So the topic of the disagreement in this historical round is surely the everlasting or permanent difference between two distinctive tempers despite the difference in the explanation of the interpreters for the spiritual doctrines and the political greed. Anyhow, these two tempers do not encounter with each other as they generally did in the conflict which happened between the Talibis and the Umayyads, especially in the conflict which occurred between Al-Husayn and Yazid. The State of Umayyads -after the killing of Al-Husayn, that is to say, it declined after about 70 years. The demise of Al-Husayn remained as the fatal disease (killer) which dwelt in its body (of the State) until it fully destroyed it . Besides, the cries and calls for taking revenge for Al-Husayn witnessed in every State which gives way to the ears and hearts of the nations. Yet, for attacking this movement in its vast and ample results, some historians thought it is managed by Al-Husayn (R.), and he meant it in this way from the first moment, and he knew the promise of victory in it, and he was not doubtful of his being killed in that year. Neither he thought of the sequence of this occurrence after his being killed, to occur to his killers, that is, to be killed after few years. Whereas, the German Orientalist, Marbean. in his book "The Islamic Policy" says: "The movement of Al-Husayn in his moving out against Yazid, was but a determination of big heart and high spirits, where he found it hard for him to submit and it was hard for him to win quick victory. So he went out with his family and close relatives. That exit which has made him attain the later victory, and revive a forsaken issue which has no other choice for living". Really, the view of the writer is wholly truthful, which is undoubtful. And this confirms our opinion about the movement of Al-Husayn after being prevented from going wherever he wants. He finally preferred death wherever it would be. And he was not ignorant of what would happen to Umayyads after committing the crime of killing him. He could fulfil his objective through their apparent victory over him, where he couldn’t realize it through his being safe from the battle of Karbala’. In fact, the mention of death has come through his tongue from the first step when he was prepared for departure, and said farewell (good-bye) to his relatives and companions in Hijaz, saying: "Death is truthful on the children of Adam". He ever knows well that he is following the plan whose rider does not care whatever fate is going to happen to him. Anyhow, he was not hopeless of persuading people and his followers from the first step. Neither he determined to meet death, till the enemy forced him for that, and they forbade him from returning (back) to any direction before driving him against his will to ‘Ubaydu-Llah Ibn Ziyad ------------------------------- With the Ummah and the Memories (The Prophetic Hijrah [Emigration] and Al-Husayn’s Upright Movement) By: Shaykh Muhammad ‘Ali At-Taskhiri The steps of the infallible Imams are undoubtedly united in essence, because they indicate one actual truth, and they are all connected together to form a linked chain with connected rings and stages for one advanced movement to realize one certain objective. This, certainly clear for the aware conscious observer. But that which emphasizes and confirms this harmony and union, is the existence of union in the form, features and the external events between some of these steps.. which may allow no room for the superficial viewer to doubt the unity of starting-point, the movement and the objective. That point is the first one. The second is more important affair, that is to say, the points of apparent similarity between these two steps, or we can say that these steps may facilitate the formation of the real image for the essence of the process, because of its presenting two similar lively figures or figures harmonious with them. As, we clearly observe these two magnificent steps of the great leaders (That is, the Prophetic emigration and the Husayni upright movement), we see this outward similarity between them, besides the unity of the essence, which was confirmed by the many continuous authentic narrations and the holy traditions and sayings, among which was the most excellent saying of the Holy Prophet (S.A.): "Husaynun minni wa Ana min Husayn", which means: (Husayn is from myself and I am from Husayn’s self) Moreover, you can see in this article, some clarified details about these great and excellent steps and principled deeds. ---------------------- Yazid… again- A Comparative Study of Some Papers of the Revolution of Al-Imam Al-Husayn (A.S.) By: Shawqi Shalbaf lt is a naive thinking to say that the battle of Karbala’ was a transient historical event, which ended after killing its heroes. And it is more naive belief of that who thinks that the tragedy which was left behind by the terrible crime was rooted only in the consciousness of the Shi‘ah Because this vision, besides its defect, disregards long historical eras of the Islamic history, which has been surrounded with breakdowns and collapses. But it remained full of enthusiasm and sensation towards this tragical incident (i.e. the unbalanced battle), and the interests and concerns are increasing in number and quality, every day to the extent that the position threatens with new explosion, while it is preceded by the policies of oppression, tyranny, and terrorism. Undoubtedly, this was caused by the great interaction of the masses of people, Sunnites and Shi‘ah, with the sad effects and terrible consequences left behind after the painful criminal incident. Certainly, the multifarious interaction of the masses of people throughout the Islamic history from generation to another shows a true factual indication to see a number of earnest concerns and interests, for studying and making researches for the comprehension of this unbalanced battle, and the attempts made for correcting all the misunderstanding and spreading wrong ideas and opinions. But, naivety may change into foolishness, if the vision was done with one eye, or imagining wrongly that the concerns and interests were all magnified or exaggerated. Because, such a supposition or assumption which is based on defective or unable vision, usurps the rights of the following: 1 - The long eras of history which is full of the works, practices and Husayni concerns 2- The people who feel pains which tear out their hearts, because of the heartrending tragedy. 3- Those who live with the cares and concerns of the Ummah which is greatly shocked and startled by the atrocity and enormity of this terrible crime. ----------------------- Martyr Imam Muhammad Baqir As-Sadr-Civilizatory Pioneering By: Sayyid Mundhir Al-Hakeem The Martyr lmam Muhammad Baqir As-Sadr has presented within a very small period of his blessed lifetime a great heritage of learning and knowledge which throbs with high vitality, great offering and generous endowment. lndeed he was full of valuable qualities and activities, creativeness, revival, methodology, coordination, profundity, originality, theorization, organization, looking up to the advanced future, farsightedness, faithfulness in worship of Almighty Allah, patience and perseverance, self-sacrificing, and an open challenge to the bases of the contemporary European civilization. As a matter of fact, the comprehension of the dimension of the greatness of this active divine ‘alim (divine learned scholar) is not easy and available for anyone within such a fast study. But this does not exempt us from discussing the most prominent features of his scientific and intellectual school which he has established and graduated a generation of learned ‘ulama’, cultured and educated men, the conscious men and those faithful ones who work for the sake of Allah. Anyhow, in spite of his short noble lifetime which was inflicted by Allah like the great men, the martyrs, the righteous and the good upright men. Then the writer has mentioned the following qualities and characteristics after saying that his school will remain pioneering and everlasting in the history of both science and faith. 1 - Comprehensiveness and encyclopedism. 2- High comprehensive capacity and familiarity. 3- Creativeness and revival 4- Methodology and coordination 5- Logical and conscientious tendency 6- Artistic taste and mental sensation 7- Civilizatory value . and so on. Hence. Martyr sayyid Muhammad Baqir As-Sadr was really a civilizatory pioneering, and among the qualities of his great school was that it was able to blow up the bases of the material civilization- especially the contemporary modern one- and to present the sublime Islamic civilization, instead of it, on its debris, and to establish it on the strong and upright bases and build it within a comprehensive, strong and coherent structure.

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